Sustainable Development Goals

Ending Poverty, Transforming all Lives, and Protecting the Planet

Continuation of the MDGs success past 2015

The UN Panel came together with a sense of optimism and a deep respect for the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The 13 years since the millennium have seen the fastest reduction in poverty in human history: there are half a billion fewer people living below an international poverty line of $1.25 a day. Child death rates have fallen by more than 30%, with about three million children’s lives saved each year compared to 2000. Deaths from malaria have fallen by one quarter. This unprecedented progress has been driven by a combination of economic growth, better policies, and the global commitment to the MDGs, which set out an inspirational rallying cry for the whole world. 

Given this remarkable success, it would be a mistake to simply tear up the MDGs and start from scratch. As world leaders agreed at Rio in 2012, new goals and targets need to be grounded in respect for universal human rights, and finish the job that the MDGs started. Central to this is eradicating extreme poverty from the face of the earth by 2030. This is something that leaders have promised time and again throughout history. Today, it can actually be done. 

So a new development agenda should carry forward the spirit of the Millennium Declaration and the best of the MDGs, with a practical focus on things like poverty, hunger, water, sanitation, education and healthcare. But to fulfil our vision of promoting sustainable development, we must go beyond the MDGs. They did not focus enough on reaching the very poorest and most excluded people. They were silent on the devastating effects of conflict and violence on development. The importance to development of good governance and institutions that guarantee the rule of law, free speech and open and accountable government was not included, nor the need for inclusive growth to provide jobs. Most seriously, the MDGs fell short by not integrating the economic, social, and environmental aspects of sustainable development as envisaged in the Millennium Declaration, and by not addressing the need to promote sustainable patterns of consumption and production. The result was that environment and development were never properly brought together. People were working hard – but often separately – on interlinked problems. 

So the Panel asked some simple questions: starting with the current MDGs, what to keep, what to amend, and what to add. In trying to answer these questions, we listened to the views of women and men, young people, parliamentarians, civil society organisations, indigenous people and local communities, migrants, experts, business, trade unions and governments. Most important, we listened directly to the voices of hundreds of thousands of people from all over the world, in face-to-face meetings as well as through surveys, community interviews, and polling over mobile phones and the internet. 

Massive Changes Since 2000

We considered the massive changes in the world since the year 2000 and the changes that are likely to unfold by 2030. There are a billion more people today, with world population at seven billion, and another billion expected by 2030. More than half of us now live in cities. Private investment in developing countries now dwarfs aid flows. The number of mobile phone subscriptions has risen from fewer than one billion to more than six billion. Thanks to the internet, seeking business or information on the other side of the world is now routine for many. Yet inequality remains and opportunity is not open to all. The 1.2 billion poorest people account for only 1 per cent of world consumption while the billion richest consume 72 per cent.

Paradigm Shift from MDG to SDG

SDGs principles are based on economic progress, equitable prosperity and opportunity, a healthy and productive environment, and participatory governance. This new foundation will require a new way of approaching “development”. The following shows some of the paradigm shifts which will be necessary:

  • Development Assistance Universal Global Compact

  • Top-Down Decision Making Multi Stakeholder Decision Making Processes

  • Models Increasing Risk and Inequality Models to Decrease Inequality and Risk

  • Shareholder Value Business Models Stakeholder Value Business Models

  • Meeting “easy” Development Targets Tackling Systemic Barriers to Progress

  • Damage Control Investing in Resilience

  • Concepts and Testing Scaled Up Interventions

  • Multiple Discrete Actions Cross-Scale Coordination

  • Foundation of SDGs

While poverty has been diminished, the gulf between the haves and the have-nots has widened – not only on an individual scale, but also at a country level. The MDGs articulated a global vision of development around a common set of goals and priorities. The next era of international cooperation should focus action at local, national and global levels on the deeply entwined economic, social and environmental challenges that confront the next generation.

The necessary Foundation for this new paradigm include the following:

  • Economic Progress

  • Equitable Prosperity and Opportunity

  • Healthy and Productive Natural Systems

  • Stakeholder Engagement and Collaboration

Results of the Open Working Groups (OWGs)

Conceptual aspects of SDGs

• The MDGs are the point of departure for our work to develop SDGs, and completion of the unfinished business of the MDGs on poverty eradication and other important social objectives must figure centrally in the post-2015 agenda.

• MDGs alone are not however the destination. SDGs must be more ambitious, must address in an integrated and balanced way the three dimensions of sustainable development, must be at the centre of a transformational agenda.

• SDGs must be universal and applicable to all countries, which means that they must be flexible enough to have ownership of countries at different levels of development and with different national priorities. A global dashboard of goals and targets was proposed as a way of reflecting common but differentiated responsibilities.

• Like the MDGs, the SDGs will need to be concise, focused, few in number, easy to communicate, and measurable. While they cannot cover all aspects of sustainable development, they will need to emerge from a common agreement on global priorities. The SDGs will need to be supported by a narrative which brings out the interrelationships and some of the drivers, strategies and approaches to achieve sustainable development.

• That narrative could be one of transformative change needed to realize our vision of sustainable poverty eradication and universal human development, respecting human dignity and protecting our planet, mother Earth, living in harmony with nature for the well-being and happiness of present and future generations.

• SDGs will need strong bottom-up engagement through broad consultation in their formulation. The voices of the poor and vulnerable especially need to be heard.

• It is important to address the means of achieving any agreed goals, including what will be

needed by way of a strengthened global partnership among governments and effective and targeted partnerships involving all relevant stakeholders.

• We need to ask ourselves, as we define goals and targets: can we reasonably expect to collect reliable and timely data in a majority of countries to measure and assess progress?

The above was taken from the United Nations Sustainability web site:


SDG Updates in 2014

SDG Updates in 2014

In the first quarter of 2014, the UN's Open Working Groups (OWGs), responsible for drafting the SDGs, finalized their working draft of the SDGs.  They narrowed the list of SDGs from 20 to the following 17.  Included with each goal, there are a list of specific targets (Sustainable Development Targets - SDTs) which will be used to track the progress being made towards these goals between 2015 and 2030. 

These 17 goals have been divided into six Elements to make them easier for people to identify so that engagement will be easier.  The six Elements are Dignity; People; Planet; Prosperity; Justice; and Partnership.  

The following list comes from Jan Goossenaerts and his site at Actor Atlas at

Goals and Targets  (SDT = Sustainable Development Target)

1.           End poverty

End poverty in all its forms everywhere

SDT 01.01 – by 2030, eradicate extreme poverty for all people everywhere, currently measured as people living on less than $1.25 a day

SDT 01.02 – by 2030, reduce at least by half the proportion of men, women and children of all ages living in poverty in all its dimensions according to national definitions.

SDT 01.03 – implement nationally appropriate social protection systems and measures for all, including floors, and by 2030 achieve substantial coverage of the poor and the vulnerable.

SDT 01.04 – by 2030 ensure that all men and women, particularly the poor and the vulnerable, have equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to basic services, ownership, and control over land and other forms of property, inheritance, natural resources, appropriate new technology, and financial services including microfinance

SDT 01.05 – by 2030 build the resilience of the poor and those in vulnerable situations, and reduce their exposure and vulnerability to climate-related extreme events and other economic, social and environmental shocks and disasters

SDT 01.a – ensure significant mobilization of resources from a variety of sources, including through enhanced development cooperation to provide adequate and predictable means for developing countries, in particular LDCs, to implement programmes and policies to end poverty in all its dimensions

SDT 01.b –  create sound policy frameworks, at national, regional and international levels, based on pro-poor and gender-sensitive development strategies to support accelerated investments in poverty eradication actions

2.           End hunger

End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture

SDT 02.01  - By 2030, end hunger and ensure access by all people, in particular the poor and people in vulnerable situations including infants, to safe,nutritious and sufficient food all year round.

SDT 02.02 – By 2030, end all forms of malnutrition, including achieving by 2025 the internationally agreed targets on stunting and wasting in children under five years of age, and address the nutritional needs of adolescent girls, pregnant and lactating women, and older persons.

SDT 02.03 – By 2030, double the agricultural productivity and the incomes of small-scale food producers, particularly women, indigenous peoples, family famrers, pastoralists and fishers, including through secure and equal access to land, other productive resources and inputs, knowledge, financial services, markets, and opportunities for value addition and non-farm employment

SDT 02.04 – By 2030, ensure sustainable food production systems and implement resilient agricultural practices that increase productivity and production, that help maintain ecosystems, that strengthen capacity for adaptation to climate change, extreme weather, drought, flooding and other disasters, and that progressively improve land and soil quality

SDT 02.05 – By 202, maintain genetic diversity of seeds, cultivated plants, farmed and domesticated animals and their related wild spec ies, including through soundly managed and diversified seed and plant banks at national, regional and international levels, and ensure access to and fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge as internationally agreed

SDT 02.a – Increase investment, including through enhanced international cooperation, in rural infrastructure, agricultural research and extension services, technology development, and plant and livestock gene banks to enhance agricultural productive capacity in developing countries, in particular in least developed countries

SDT 02.b – Correct and prevent trade restrictions and distortions in world agricultural markets including by the parallel elimination of all forms of agricultural export subsidies and all export measures with equivalent effect, in accordance with the mandate of the Doha Development Round

SDT 02.c – Adopt measures to ensure the proper functioning of food commodity markets and their derivatives, and facilitate timely access to market information, including on food reserves, in order to help limit extreme food price volatility

3.           Sustainable health

Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages

SDT 03.01 - by 2030 reduce the global maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 per 100,000 live births

SDT 03.02 - by 2030 end preventable deaths of newborns and under-five children

SDT 03.03 – by 2030 end the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, and neglected tropical diseases and combat hepatitis, water-borne diseases, and other communicable diseases

SDT 03.04 – by 2030 reduce by one-third pre-mature mortality from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) through prevention and treatment, and promote mental health and wellbeing

SDT 03.05 – strengthen prevention and treatment of substance abuse, including narcotic drug abuse and harmful use of alcohol

SDT 03.06 – By 2020, halve global deaths and injuries from road traffic accidents

SDT 03.07 – by 2030 ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health care services, including for family planning, information and education, and the integration of reproductive health into national strategies and programmes

SDT 03.08 – Achieve universal health coverage (UHC) including financial risk protections, access to quality essential health care,

SDT 03.09 – by 2030 substantially reduce the number of deaths and illnesses from hazardous chemicals and air, water, and soil pollution and contamination

SDT 03.a – Strengthen implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in all countries as appropriate.

SDT 03.b – support research and development of vaccines and medicines for the communicable and non-communicable diseases that primarily affect developing countries, provide access to affordable essential medicines and vaccines, in accordance with the Doha Declaration which affirms the right of developing countries to use to the full the provisions in the TRIPS agreement regarding flexibilities to protect public health and, in particular, provide access to medicines for all

SDT 03.c – increase substantially health financing and the recruitment, development and training and retention of the health workforce in developing countries, especially in LDCs and SIDS

SDT 03.d – strengthen the capacity of all countries, particularly developing countries, for early warning, risk reduction, and management of national and global health risks

4.           Sustainable education

Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life-long learning opportunities for all

SDT 04.01 – by 2030, ensure that all girls and boys complete free, equitable and quality primary and secondary education leading to relevant and effective learning outcomes

SDT 04.02 – by 2030 ensure that all girls and boys have access to quality early childhood development, care and pre-primary education so that they are ready for primary education

SDT 04.03 – by 2030 ensure equal access for all women and men to affordable quality technical, vocational and tertiary education, including university

SDT 04.04 –  by 2030, increase by x% the number of youth and adults who have relevant skills, including technical and vocational skills, for employment, decent jobs and entrepreneurship

SDT 04.05 – by 2030, eliminate gender disparities in education and ensure equal access to all levels of education and vocational training for the vulnerable, including persons with disabilities, indigenous peoples, and children in vulnerable situations

SDT 04.06 – by 2030 ensure that all youth and at least x% of adults, both men and women, achieve literacy and numeracy

SDT 04.07 – by 2030 ensure all learners acquire knowledge and skills needed to promote sustainable development, including among others through education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development

SDT 04.a – build and upgrade education facilities that are child, disability and gender sensitive and provide safe, non-violent, inclusive and effective learning environments for all

SDT 04.b –  by 2020 expand by x% globally the number of scholarships for developing countries in particular LDCs, SIDS and African countries to enrol in higher education, including vocational training, ICT, technical, engineering and scientific programmes in developed countries and other developing countries

SDT 04.c –  by 2030 increase by x% the supply of qualified teachers, including through international cooperation for teacher training in developing countries, especially LDCs and SIDS

5.           Gender equality

Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls

SDT 05.01 – end all forms of discrimination against all women and girls everywhere

SDT 05.02 – eliminate all forms of violence against all women and girls in public and private spheres, including trafficking and sexual and other types of exploitation

SDT 05.03 – eliminate all harmful practices, such as child, early and forced marriage and female genital mutilations

SDT 05.04 – recognize and value unpaid care and domestic work through the provision of public services, infrastructure and social protection policies, and the promotion of shared responsibility within the household and the family as nationally appropriate

SDT 05.05 – ensure women’s full and effective participation and equal opportunities for leadership at all levels of decision-making in political, economic, and public life

SDT 05.06 – ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights as agreed in accordance with the Programme of Action of the ICPD and the Beijing Platform for Action and the outcome documents of their review conferences

SDT 05.a – undertake reforms to give women equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to ownership and control over land and other forms of property, financial services, inheritance, and natural resources in accordance with national laws

SDT 05.b – enhance the use of enabling technologies, in particular ICT, to promote women’s empowerment

SDT 05.c – adopt and strengthen sound policies and enforceable legislation for the promotion of gender equality and the empowerment of all women and girls at all levels

6.           Sustainable water (and sanitation)

Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all

SDT 06.01 –  by 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all

SDT 06.02 – by 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all, and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations

SDT 06.03 – by 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater, and increasing recycling and safe reuse by x% globally

SDT 06.04 – by 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity, and substantially reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity

SDT 06.05 – by 2030 implement integrated water resources management at all levels, including through transboundary cooperation as appropriate

SDT 06.06 – by 2020 protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes

SDT 06.a –  by 2030, expand international cooperation and capacity-building support to developing countries in water and sanitation related activities and programmes, including water harvesting, desalination, water efficiency, wastewater treatment, recycling and reuse technologies

SDT 06.b – support and strengthen the participation of local communities for improving water and sanitation management

7.           Sustainable energy

Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all

SDT 07.01 – by 2030 ensure universal access to affordable, reliable, and modern energy services

SDT 07.02 –  increase substantially the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix by 2030

SDT 07.03 – double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency by 2030

SDT 07.a – by 2030 enhance international cooperation to facilitate access to clean energy research and technologies, including renewable energy, energy efficiency, and advanced and cleaner fossil fuel technologies, and promote investment in energy infrastructure and clean energy technologies

SDT 07.b –  by 2030 expand infrastructure and upgrade technology for supplying modern and sustainable energy services for all in developing countries, particularly LDCs and SIDS

8.           Sustainable economic growth (full/deceent employment)

Promote sustained, inclusive & sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all

SDT 08.01 – sustain per capita economic growth in accordance with national circumstances, and in particular at least 7% per annum GDP growth in the least-developed countries

SDT 08.02 – achieve higher levels of productivity of economies through diversification, technological upgrading and innovation, including through a focus on high value added and labour-intensive sectors

SDT 08.03 – promote development-oriented policies that support productive activities, decent job creation, entrepreneurship, creativity and innovation, and encourage formalization and growth of micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises including through access to financial services

SDT 08.04 – improve progressively through 2030 global resource efficiency in consumption and production, and endeavour to decouple economic growth from environmental degradation in accordance with the 10-year framework of programmes on sustainable consumption and production with developed countries taking the lead

SDT 08.05 – by 2030 achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all women and men, including for young people and persons with disabilities, and equal pay for work of equal value

SDT 08.06 – by 2020 substantially reduce the proportion of youth not in employment, education or training

SDT 08.07 –  take immediate and effective measures to secure the prohibition and elimination of the worst forms of child labour, eradicate forced labour, and by 2025 end child labour in all its forms including recruitment and use of child soldiers

SDT 08.08 – protect labour rights and promote safe and secure working environments of all workers, including migrant workers, particularly women migrants, and those in precarious employment

SDT 08.09 – by 2030 devise and implement policies to promote sustainable tourism which creates jobs, promotes local culture and products

SDT 08.10 – strengthen the capacity of domestic financial institutions to encourage and to expand access to banking, insurance and financial services for all

SDT 08.a – increase Aid for Trade support for developing countries, particularly LDCs, including through the Enhanced Integrated Framework for LDCs

SDT 08.b – by 2020 develop and operationalize a global strategy for youth employment and implement the ILO Global Jobs Pact

9.           Sustainable infrastructure/industrialization with innovation

Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation

SDT 09.01 – develop quality, reliable, sustainable and resilient infrastructure, including regional and trans-border infrastructure, to support economic development and human well-being, with a focus on affordable and equitable access for all

SDT 09.02 – promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization, and by 2030 raise significantly industry’s share of employment and GDP in line with national circumstances, and double its share in LDCs

SDT 09.03 –  increase the access of small-scale industrial and other enterprises, particularly in developing countries, to financial services including affordable credit and their integration into value chains and markets

SDT 09.04 – by 2030 upgrade infrastructure and retrofit industries to make them sustainable, with increased resource use efficiency and greater adoption of clean and environmentally sound technologies and industrial processes, all countries taking action in accordance with their respective capabilities

SDT 09.05 – enhance scientific research, upgrade the technological capabilities of industrial sectors in all countries, particularly developing countries, including by 2030 encouraging innovation and increasing the number of R&D worker

SDT 09.a – facilitate sustainable and resilient infrastructure development in developing countries through enhanced financial, technological and technical support to African countries, LDCs, LLDCs and SIDS

SDT 09.b – support domestic technology development, research and innovation in developing countries including by ensuring a conducive policy environment for inter alia industrial diversification and value addition to commodities

SDT 09.c – significantly increase access to ICT and strive to provide universal and affordable access to internet in LDCs by 2020

10.         Sustainable wealth gaps

Reduce inequality within and among countries

SDT 10.01 – by 2030 progressively achieve and sustain income growth of the bottom 40% of the population at a rate higher than the national average

SDT 10.02 – by 2030 empower and promote the social, economic and political inclusion of all irrespective of age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion or economic or other status

SDT 10.03 – ensure equal opportunity and reduce inequalities of outcome, including through eliminating discriminatory laws, policies and practices and promoting appropriate legislation, policies and actions in this regard

SDT 10.04 – adopt policies especially fiscal, wage, and social protection policies and progressively achieve greater equality

SDT 10.05 – improve regulation and monitoring of global financial markets and institutions and strengthen implementation of such regulations

SDT 10.06 –  ensure enhanced representation and voice of developing countries in decision making in global international economic and financial institutions in order to deliver more effective, credible, accountable and legitimate institutions

SDT 10.07 – facilitate orderly, safe, regular and responsible migration and mobility of people, including through implementation of planned and well-managed migration policies

SDT 10.a –  implement the principle of special and differential treatment for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, in accordance with WTO agreements

SDT 10.b – encourage ODA and financial flows, including foreign direct investment, to states where the need is greatest, in particular LDCs, African countries, SIDS, and LLDCs, in accordance with their national plans and programmes

SDT 10.c – by 2030, reduce to less than 3% the transaction costs of migrant remittances and eliminate remittance corridors with costs higher than 5%

11.         Sustainable cities

 Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable

SDT 11.01 – by 2030, ensure access for all to adequate, safe and affordable housing and basic services, and upgrade slums

SDT 11.02 – by 2030, provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all, improving road safety, notably by expanding public transport, with special attention to the needs of those in vulnerable situations, women, children, persons with disabilities and older persons

SDT 11.03 – by 2030 enhance inclusive and sustainable urbanization and capacities for participatory, integrated and sustainable human settlement planning and management in all countries

SDT 11.04 –  strengthen efforts to protect and safeguard the world’s cultural and natural heritage

SDT 11.05 – by 2030 significantly reduce the number of deaths and the number of affected people and decrease by y% the economic losses relative to GDP caused by disasters, including water-related disasters, with the focus on protecting the poor and people in vulnerable situations

SDT 11.06 – by 2030, reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including by paying special attention to air quality, municipal and other waste management

SDT 11.07 – by 2030, provide universal access to safe, inclusive and accessible, green and public spaces, particularly for women and children, older persons and persons with disabilities

SDT 11.a –  support positive economic, social and environmental links between urban, peri-urban and rural areas by strengthening national and regional development planning

SDT 11. b –  by 2020, increase by x% the number of cities and human settlements adopting and implementing integrated policies and plans towards inclusion, resource efficiency, mitigation and adaptation to climate change, resilience to disasters, develop and implement in line with the forthcoming Hyogo Framework holistic disaster risk management at all levels

SDT 11.c – support least developed countries, including through financial and technical assistance, for sustainable and resilient buildings utilizing local materials

12.         Sustainable consumption and production

 Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns

SDT 12.01 –  implement the 10-Year Framework of Programmes on sustainable consumption and production (10YFP), all countries taking action, with developed countries taking the lead, taking into account the development and capabilities of developing countries

SDT 12.02 – by 2030 achieve sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources

SDT 12.03 – by 2030 halve per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer level, and reduce food losses along production and supply chains including post-harvest losses

SDT 12.04 – by 2020 achieve environmentally sound management of chemicals and all wastes throughout their life cycle in accordance with agreed international frameworks and significantly reduce their release to air, water and soil to minimize their adverse impacts on human health and the environment

SDT 12.05 –  by 2030, substantially reduce waste generation through prevention, reduction, recycling, and reuse

SDT 12. 06 – encourage companies, especially large and trans-national companies, to adopt sustainable practices and to integrate sustainability information into their reporting cycle

SDT 12. 07 – promote public procurement practices that are sustainable in accordance with national policies and priorities

SDT 12. 08 – by 2030 ensure that people everywhere have the relevant information and awareness for sustainable development and lifestyles in harmony with nature

SDT 12.a – support developing countries to strengthen their scientific and technological capacities to move towards more sustainable patterns of consumption and production

SDT 12.b – develop and implement tools to monitor sustainable development impacts for sustainable tourism which creates jobs, promotes local culture and products

SDT 12.c – rationalize inefficient fossil fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption by removing market distortions, in accordance with national circumstances, including by restructuring taxation and phasing out those harmful subsidies, where they exist, to reflect their environmental impacts, taking fully into account the specific needs and conditions of developing countries and minimizing the possible adverse impacts on their development in a manner that protects the poor and the affected communities

13.         Sustainable climate change

Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts

SDT 13.01 – strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate related hazards and natural disasters in all countries

SDT 13.02 –  integrate climate change measures into national policies, strategies, and planning

SDT 13.03 – improve education, awareness raising and human and institutional capacity on climate change mitigation, adaptation, impact reduction, and early warning

SDT 13.a – implement the commitment undertaken by developed country Parties to the UNFCCC to a goal of mobilizing jointly USD100 billion annually by 2020 from all sources to address the needs of developing countries in the context of meaningful mitigation actions and transparency on implementation and fully operationalize the Green Climate Fund through its capitalization as soon as possible

SDT 13.b –  Promote mechanisms for raising capacities for effective climate change related planning and management, in LDCs, including focusing on women, youth, local and marginalized communities

14.         Sustainable oceans/seas/marine resources

Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development

SDT 14.01 – by 2025, prevent and significantly reduce marine pollution of all kinds, particularly from land-based activities, including marine debris and nutrient pollution

SDT 14.02 – by 2020, sustainably manage and protect marine and coastal ecosystems to avoid significant adverse impacts, including by strengthening their resilience, and take action for their restoration, to achieve healthy and productive oceans

SDT 14.03 – minimize and address the impacts of ocean acidification, including through enhanced scientific cooperation at all levels

SDT 14.04 – by 2020, effectively regulate harvesting, and end overfishing, illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing and destructive fishing practices and implement science-based management plans, to restore fish stocks in the shortest time feasible at least to levels that can produce maximum sustainable yield as determined by their biological characteristics

SDT 14.05 – by 2020, conserve at least 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, consistent with national and international law and based on best available scientific information

SDT 14.06 – by 2020, prohibit certain forms of fisheries subsidies which contribute to overcapacity and overfishing, and eliminate subsidies that contribute to IUU fishing, and refrain from introducing new such subsidies, recognizing that appropriate and effective special and differential treatment for developing and least developed countries should be an integral part of the WTO fisheries subsidies negotiation

SDT 14.07 – by 2030 increase the economic benefits to SIDS and LDCs from the sustainable use of marine resources, including through sustainable management of fisheries, aquaculture and tourism

SDT 14.a – increase scientific knowledge, develop research capacities and transfer marine technology taking into account the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Criteria and Guidelines on the Transfer of Marine Technology, in order to improve ocean health and to enhance the contribution of marine biodiversity to the development of developing countries, in particular SIDS and LDCs

SDT 14.b – provide access of small-scale artisanal fishers to marine resources and markets

SDT 14.c – ensure the full implementation of international law, as reflected in UNCLOS for states parties to it, including, where applicable, existing regional and international regimes for the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and their resources by their parties

15.         Sustainable terrestrial ecosystems and forests

Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss

SDT 15.01 – by 2020 ensure conservation, restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services, in particular forests, wetlands, mountains and drylands, in line with obligations under international agreements

SDT 15.02 – by 2020, promote the implementation of sustainable management of all types of forests, halt deforestation, restore degraded forests, and increase afforestation and reforestation by x% globally

SDT 15.03 – by 2020, combat desertification, and restore degraded land and soil, including land affected by desertification, drought and floods, and strive to achieve a land-degradation neutral world

SDT 15.04 – by 2030 ensure the conservation of mountain ecosystems, including their biodiversity, to enhance their capacity to provide benefits which are essential for sustainable development

SDT 15.05 –  take urgent and significant action to reduce degradation of natural habitat, halt the loss of biodiversity, and by 2020 protect and prevent the extinction of threatened species

SDT 15.06 – ensure fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources, and promote appropriate access to genetic resources

SDT 15.07 – take urgent action to end poaching and trafficking of protected species of flora and fauna, and address both demand and supply of illegal wildlife products

SDT 15.08 – by 2020 introduce measures to prevent the introduction and significantly reduce the impact of invasive alien species on land and water ecosystems, and control or eradicate the priority species

SDT 15.09 – by 2020, integrate ecosystems and biodiversity values into national and local planning, development processes and poverty reduction strategies, and accounts

SDT 15.a – mobilize and significantly increase from all sources financial resources to conserve and sustainably use biodiversity and ecosystems

SDT 15.b – mobilize significantly resources from all sources and at all levels to finance sustainable forest management, and provide adequate incentives to developing countries to advance sustainable forest management, including for conservation and reforestation

SDT 15.c – enhance global support to efforts to combat poaching and trafficking of protected species, including by increasing the capacity of local communities to pursue sustainable livelihood opportunities

16.         Sustainable peace and justice

Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels

SDT 16.01 –  significantly reduce all forms of violence and related death rates everywhere

SDT 16.02 – end abuse, exploitation, trafficking and all forms of violence and torture against children

SDT 16.03 – promote the rule of law at the national and international levels, and ensure equal access to justice for all

SDT 16.04 – by 2030 significantly reduce illicit financial and arms flows, strengthen recovery and return of stolen assets, and combat all forms of organized crime

SDT 16.05 –  substantially reduce corruption and bribery in all its forms

SDT 16.06 – develop effective, accountable and transparent institutions at all levels

SDT 16.07 –  ensure responsive, inclusive, participatory and representative decision-making at all levels

SDT 16.08 – broaden and strengthen the participation of developing countries in the institutions of global governance

SDT 16.09 – by 2030 provide legal identity for all including birth registration

SDT 16.10 – ensure public access to information and protect fundamental freedoms, in accordance with national legislation and international agreements

SDT 16.a –  strengthen relevant national institutions, including through international cooperation, for building capacities at all levels, in particular in developing countries, for preventing violence and combating terrorism and crime

SDT 16.b – promote and enforce non-discriminatory laws and policies for sustainable development

17.         Sustainable implementation and revitalization of global partnerships (Collaboration and cooperation rather than competition and control)

 Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development

SDT 17.01 – strengthen domestic resource mobilization, including through international support to developing countries to improve domestic capacity for tax and other revenue collection

SDT 17.02 – developed countries to implement fully their ODA commitments, including to provide 0.7% of GNI in ODA to developing countries of which 0.15-0.20% to least-developed countries

SDT 17.03 – mobilize additional financial resources for developing countries from multiple sources

SDT 17.04 – assist developing countries in attaining long-term debt sustainability through coordinated policies aimed at fostering debt financing, debt relief and debt restructuring, as appropriate, and address the external debt of highly indebted poor countries (HIPC) to reduce debt distress

SDT 17.05 – adopt and implement investment promotion regimes for LDCs

SDT 17.06 –  enhance North-South, South-South and triangular regional and international cooperation on and access to science, technology and innovation, and enhance knowledge sharing on mutually agreed terms, including through improved coordination among existing mechanisms, particularly at UN level, and through a global technology facilitation mechanism when agreed

SDT 17.07 – promote development, transfer, dissemination and diffusion of environmentally sound technologies to developing countries on favourable terms, including on concessional and preferential terms, as mutually agreed

SDT 17.08 –  fully operationalize the Technology Bank and STI (Science, Technology and Innovation) capacity building mechanism for LDCs by 2017, and enhance the use of enabling technologies in particular ICT

SDT 17.09 – enhance international support for implementing effective and targeted capacity building in developing countries to support national plans to implement all sustainable development goals, including through North-South, South-South, and triangular cooperation

SDT 17.10 –  promote a universal, rules-based, open, non-discriminatory and equitable multilateral trading system under the WTO including through the conclusion of negotiations within its Doha Development Agenda

SDT 17.11 –  increase significantly the exports of developing countries, in particular with a view to doubling the LDC share of global exports by 2020

SDT 17.12 –  realize timely implementation of duty-free, quota-free market access on a lasting basis for all least developed countries consistent with WTO decisions, including through ensuring that preferential rules of origin applicable to imports from LDCs are transparent and simple, and contribute to facilitating market access

SDT 17.13 –  enhance global macroeconomic stability including through policy coordination and policy coherence

SDT 17.14 – enhance policy coherence for sustainable development

SDT 17.15 – respect each country’s policy space and leadership to establish and implement policies for poverty eradication and sustainable development

SDT 17.16 – enhance the global partnership for sustainable development complemented by multi-stakeholder partnerships that mobilize and share knowledge, expertise, technologies and financial resources to support the achievement of sustainable development goals in all countries, particularly developing countries

SDT 17.17 – encourage and promote effective public, public-private, and civil society partnerships, building on the experience and resourcing strategies of partnerships

SDT 17.18 – by 2020, enhance capacity building support to developing countries, including for LDCs and SIDS, to increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts

SDT 17.19 – by 2030, build on existing initiatives to develop measurements of progress on sustainable development that complement GDP, and support statistical capacity building in developing countries

Sustainability Development Goals Graphic

Sustainability Spiral


Focus 1:  Poverty Eradication


Eradication of poverty in all its multi-dimensional forms remains the overriding priority and a necessary condition for sustainable development. The pursuit of this is critical to realizing the unfinished business of the MDGs. Some areas that could be considered include:

eradicating absolute poverty;

  1. reducing relative poverty;

  2. providing social protection and social protection floors as relevant to reduce vulnerabilities of the poor, including children, youth, the unemployed, migrants, persons with disabilities, indigenous peoples, and older persons;

  3. access to property and productive assets, including associated rights, finance and markets for all women and men;

  4. addressing inequalities at both national and international levels;

  5. pursuing sustained and inclusive economic growth;

  6. developing and using evidence-based, high quality, timely, disaggregated data and impartial, internationally established methods for evaluating progress; and

  7. appropriate means of implementation*.

Results from OWG Focus 1 - Poverty eradication

• Poverty eradication remains the overriding objective of the international community and is absolutely essential as foundation for sustainable development.

• Eradicating extreme poverty is an essential goal. There was no broad consensus on what poverty measure to use -- $1.25/day or possibly higher could be one measure of income poverty. The possibility of an index which would bring out the multidimensional aspects of poverty was also emphasized.

• The World Bank has issued a new vision paper which spells out what it considers a feasible yet ambitious target: reducing the percentage of people living on less than US$ 1.25 a day to 3 percent by 2030.

• To address inequality, the WB proposes a goal for shared prosperity and a target to promote the income growth of the bottom 40 percent of the population in every country.

• Poverty is multidimensional: it was broadly agreed that poverty eradication must address the other dimensions beyond $1.25/day income or consumption, including hunger and malnutrition, inadequate health care and education, very few productive assets, and little or no access to safe drinking water, sanitation, modern energy services.

• Poverty eradication needs to be a stand-alone goal in the SDGs, and it should also inform our approach to all relevant goals, asking how their achievement would benefit the poor and/or how the particular concerns of the poor can be addressed through specific targets.

• It was suggested that in a sustainable development context poverty eradication can be seen in relation to the three dimensions – in terms of access to essential social goods and services (health, education, water and sanitation), access to economic opportunities and productive assets, and access to natural assets, or resources, and their benefits.

The above was taken from the United Nations Sustainability web site:


Focus 2: Sustainable agriculture, food security and nutrition


Increasing the productivity of agriculture sustainably and improving food systems are important for economic well-being as well as for ensuring food security and nutritionrealization of the right to adequate food and eradication of hunger. Some areas that could be considered include:

  1. ensuring year-round access by all to affordable, adequate, safe and nutritious food;

  2. ending child malnutrition and stunting;

  3. increasing agricultural productivity, including through adequate irrigation, seeds and fertilisers, while in parallel halting and reversing land degradation, drought and desertification;

  4. improving efficiency of water use in agriculture;

  5. eliminating use of toxic chemicals;

  6. enhancing all forms of agricultural biodiversity;

  7. promoting indigenous and sustainable farming and fishing practices;

  8. strengthening resilience of farming systems and food supplies to climate change;

  9. enhancing adherence to internationally recognized guidelines on the responsible governance of tenure of land, fisheries and forests, including full consultation with local communities;

  10. improved access to credit and other financial services, land tenure, and agricultural extension services, for all, including smallholders, women, indigenous peoples and local communities;

  11. increased investment and support to research and development on sustainable agricultural technologies;

  12. reducing post-harvest crop losses and food waste along food supply chains;

  13. addressing harmful agricultural subsidies;

  14. addressing price volatility, including through market information and oversight on commodity markets; and

  15. appropriate means of implementation*.

Results of OWG for Focus 2

Increasing the productivity of agriculture sustainably and improving food systems are important for economic well-being as well as for ensuring food security and nutritionrealization of the right to adequate food and eradication of hunger. Some areas that could be considered include:

  1. ensuring year-round access by all to affordable, adequate, safe and nutritious food;

  2. ending child malnutrition and stunting;

  3. increasing agricultural productivity, including through adequate irrigation, seeds and fertilisers, while in parallel halting and reversing land degradation, drought and desertification;

  4. improving efficiency of water use in agriculture;

  5. eliminating use of toxic chemicals;

  6. enhancing all forms of agricultural biodiversity;

  7. promoting indigenous and sustainable farming and fishing practices;

  8. strengthening resilience of farming systems and food supplies to climate change;

  9. enhancing adherence to internationally recognized guidelines on the responsible governance of tenure of land, fisheries and forests, including full consultation with local communities;

  10. improved access to credit and other financial services, land tenure, and agricultural extension services, for all, including smallholders, women, indigenous peoples and local communities;

  11. increased investment and support to research and development on sustainable agricultural technologies;

  12. reducing post-harvest crop losses and food waste along food supply chains;

  13. addressing harmful agricultural subsidies;

  14. addressing price volatility, including through market information and oversight on commodity markets; and

  15. appropriate means of implementation*.

The above was taken from the United Nations Sustainability web site:



Focus 3: Health and Population Dynamics


Realizing the right to the highest attainable standard of mental and physical health and improving healthy life expectancy is a widely shared endeavour. Some areas that could be considered include:

  1. universal health coverage;

  2. strengthening health systems, including through increased health financing, development and training of the health workforce, and access to safe, affordable, effective and quality medicines, vaccines and medical technologies;

  3. ensuring affordable essential medicines and vaccines for all;

  4. dissemination of medical and public health knowledge, including traditional knowledge;

  5. elimination of preventable child and maternal deaths;

  6. significant reduction of child morbidity;

  7. End the HIV/AIDS epidemic;

  8. preventing and treating communicable diseases, including malaria, tuberculosis, and neglected tropical diseases;

  9. addressing non-communicable diseases (NCDs) inter alia through promoting healthy diets and lifestyles, including for youth;

  10. tackling environmental causes of disease;

  11. access to sexual and reproductive health, including modern methods of family planning;

  12. providing for the health needs of persons with disabilities, youth, migrants, and ageing populations;

  13. eliminating harmful practices;

  14. reducing road accidents; and

  15. appropriate means of implementation*.


  • Health is a right and a goal in its own right, as well as a means of measuring success across the whole sustainable development agenda. It encompasses broad well-being, not merely the absence of disease.

  • Reference was made to universal health coverage; equitable access to quality basic health services; health promotion, prevention, treatment, and financial risk protection. Health MDGs could be integrated as targets under an overarching universal health goal.

  • Communicable diseases still burden many countries, but non-communicable diseases increasingly affect all countries, highlighting the need to promote healthy diets and lifestyles. There is a need to address access and health needs of persons with disabilities.

  • The discussions highlighted the importance of equal access of women and girls to health-care services, including addressing women’s sexual and reproductive health, and ensuring universal access to safe, effective, affordable and acceptable modern methods of family planning.

  • Ageing populations are a major health care challenge for many countries. There is an overlap between health risks facing the young and the old.

  • Demographic realities facing different regions of the world are divergent – there can be no uniform prescription for responding to population dynamics. But demography is not destiny. Developing countries with growing youth populations can reap a demographic dividend, but will need complementary policies to foster economic dynamism and job creation.

  • Migration can bring development benefits, as well as challenges, including the loss of skilled labour and social integration of migrants.

The above was taken from the United Nations Sustainability web site:


Focus 4: Education


Everyone has a right to education. Achieving universal access to quality education is critical to poverty eradication across generations, opens up lifelong opportunities, promotes gender equality and women's empowerment, shapes cultures, values and creates a skilled labour force. Some areas that could be considered include:

  1. universal, free primary and secondary education for girls and boys;

  2. ensuring equitable access to education at all levels with focus on the most marginalized, including indigenous peoples, ethnic minorities, persons with disabilities, persons living in rural areas, and migrants;

  3. achieving high completion rates at all levels of education for both girls and boys;

  4. providing universal early childhood education;

  5. ensuring effective learning outcomes at all levels and imparting knowledge and skills that match the demands of the labour market, including through vocational training and skills development for youth;

  6. universal adult literacy and lifelong learning opportunities for all;

  7. integrating sustainable development in education curricula, including awareness raising on how culture advances sustainable development; and

  8. appropriate means of implementation*.

The above was taken from the United Nations Sustainability web site:

Gender Equality

Focus 5: Gender Equality


Provision of equal opportunities for men and women, boys and girls, is necessary for the full realization of their rights, their potential, and their contribution to sustainable development. Some areas that could be considered include:

  1. ending all forms of discrimination against women of all ages;

  2. ending violence against girls and women in all its forms;

  3. ensuring equal access to education at all levels;

  4. ensuring equal employment opportunities for women and equal pay for equal work;

  5. equal access to assets and resources, including natural resources management;

  6. ensuring equal participation of women in decision-making in public and private institutions;

  7. ending child, early and forced marriage;

  8. reducing the burden of unpaid care work;

  9. sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights;

  10. promoting the availability of gender disaggregated data to improve gender equality policies, including gender sensitive budgeting; and

  11. appropriate means of implementation*.


  • Gender equality was affirmed as an end in itself and as an essential means for sustainable development and poverty eradication. There can be no sustainable development without gender equality and the full participation of women and girls. Gender inequality is the most pervasive form of inequality in the world.

  • There was widespread support for a stand-alone goal on gender equality, supplemented by cross- cutting targets under other goals.

  • Gender equality, women’s rights, and women’s empowerment in the SDGs must be aligned with CEDAW, the Beijing Platform for Action, the ICPD, and the Rio+20 outcome document.

  • Many expressed broad support for a number of priority actions, including: preventing and eliminating all forms of violence against women and girls; empowering women legally and economically; and strengthening women’s voice, participation in decision-making and leadership in all areas of life.

  • The recognition, reduction, and redistribution of unpaid care and domestic work, disproportionately borne by women and girls, was also recognized as an area for action.

  • Many of you referred to the need to respect and fulfil the sexual and reproductive health and rights of all individuals, including access to sexual and reproductive health information, education, and services. Many others referred to the need to be consistent in this regard with the ICPD agreement and stressed the need not to include ideas, concepts, and rights that are not agreed upon within the internationally recognised human rights framework.

The above was taken from the United Nations Sustainability web site:

Water and Sanitation

Focus 6: Water and Sanitation


For a water-secure world and for the realization of the right to safe drinking water and sanitation, the whole water cycle has to be taken into consideration to tackle water-related challenges. Some areas that could be considered include:

  1. ensuring access to safe and affordable drinking water and adequate sanitation for all, especially for women and girls, including in households, schools, health facilities, workplaces and refugee camps;

  2. providing adequate facilities and infrastructure, both built and natural, for safe drinking water and sanitation systems in all areas;

  3. extending wastewater treatment, recycling and reuse;

  4. improving water-use efficiency;

  5. bringing fresh water extraction in line with sustainable supply;

  6. enhancing effective water governance including catchment area based integrated water resources management and appropriate trans-boundary co-operation;

  7. expanding water-related vocational training at all levels;

  8. protecting and restoring water-linked ecosystems like mountains, watersheds and wetlands;

  9. eliminating the pollution and dumping of toxic materials in water bodies, and protecting aquifers;

  10. eliminating of invasive alien species in water bodies;

  11. investing in water harvesting technologies;

  12. reducing risks and impacts of water-related disasters; and

  13. appropriate means of implementation*.


Water and sanitation

• Water is at the core of sustainable development. Water and sanitation are central to the achievement

of many development goals, including agriculture, health and education.

• Universal access would greatly reduce the burden of disease in many developing countries, especially

in reducing child mortality. Need to attain universal coverage of safe drinking water, sanitation and hygiene in an ambitious timeframe.

• Water resources also play a vital role in economic growth and poverty eradication. The importance of

transboundary water management was underscored.

• Addressing water effectively must encompass access, water quantity and quality, improved governance frameworks, infrastructure and technology, and water efficiency. Better preparedness for

hydrological extremes will be essential to improve resilience to natural disasters.

• Need investment in, and access to, appropriate technologies for water treatment, recycling and re-use.

• Sustainable, integrated management of watersheds, wetland

The above was taken from the United Nations Sustainability web site:


Focus 7: Energy


Energy plays a critical role in economic growth and social development. Ensuring access to affordable, modern and reliable energy resources for all is also important for poverty eradication, women's empowerment, and provision of basic services. Some areas that could be considered include:

  1. ensuring universal access, for both women and men, to modern energy services;

  2. deployment of cleaner, including low- or zero-emissions energy technologies;

  3. increasing the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix, including by providing policy space and necessary incentives for renewable energy;

  4. improving energy efficiency in buildings, industry, agriculture and transport;

  5. phasing out inefficient fossil fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption;

  6. building capacity and transferring modern energy technologies;

  7. mobilizing finance to invest in modern energy infrastructure;

  8. sharing knowledge and experience on appropriate regulatory frameworks and enabling environments;

  9. promoting partnerships on sustainable energy; and

  10. appropriate means of implementation*.


  • Access to safe, affordable and reliable energy is a pre-requisite for growth and poverty eradication. Universal access to modern energy services enjoys broad support as target, including electricity and clean cooking fuels where benefits accrue especially to women and children.

  • Energy is an enabler for development and is linked to all dimensions of sustainable development. There is no significant trade-off between providing modern energy access to the poor and greenhouse gas mitigation. Additional costs of de-carbonization must not be borne by the poor.

  • Global energy demand will continue to grow with economic development. During a low-carbon energy transition expected to take decades, renewable energy will continue to be integrated with traditional energy sources, including fossil fuels. There is no one-size-fits-all; degrees of freedom exist in charting the transition to a sustainable energy development path.

  • An accessible pool of affordable technologies can support the energy transition and address the challenge of climate change, benefiting from increased investment and international cooperation in conjunction with supportive financing and an enabling policy and regulatory environment.

  • Renewable energy is becoming an integral part of the energy system in a growing number of countries. Renewable energy costs are declining steeply but remain a challenge.

  • Energy efficiency and conservation are critical components of sustainable energy.

  • The penetration of renewable energy has proceeded fastest where a developed energy infrastructure is in place but mini-grid technology holds promise for decentralized solutions.

  • The Sustainable Energy for All initiative contains ambitious but feasible targets for universal energy access, for renewable energy and for energy efficiency.

The above was taken from the United Nations Sustainability web site:


Economic Growth

Focus 8: Economic Growth


Achieving sustained and inclusive economic growth for sustainable development remains the surest means of eradicating poverty and attaining shared prosperity. At the same time, growth should be pursued in ways that brings beneficial environmental and social impacts. Some areas that could be considered include:

  1. enhancing macroeconomic policy coordination;

  2. fostering conducive regulatory and fiscal systems to promote sustainable development;

  3. encouraging structural transformation towards higher productivity sectors and activities;

  4. substantially improving energy and resource productivity of economic activities;

  5. promoting entrepreneurship, small and medium scale enterprises, and innovation;

  6. creating productive, well-paid jobs;

  7. promoting investments in infrastructure such as roads, railways, ports, electricity, and communications;

  8. strengthening productive capacities in all countries with a particular focus on LDCs, including through technological upgrading and value addition;

  9. promoting an open, rules-based, non-discriminatory and equitable multilateral trading system;

  10. promoting trade facilitation and preferential market access for LDCs;

  11. ensuring debt sustainability;

  12. facilitating international technology cooperation and technology transfer, particularly for environmentally sound technologies;

  13. developing and using evidence-based, high quality, timely, disaggregated data sources; and

  14. appropriate means of implementation*.


  • Economic growth is a prerequisite for poverty eradication, which remains our overriding priority. Growth needs to be inclusive, sustained and sustainable, and cognizant of the need to promote harmony with nature. Reducing inequalities within and between countries facilitates the goals of poverty eradication and shared prosperity.

  • Rapid and lasting growth in many emerging economies has resulted in new realities and possibilities in the world economy.

  • Industrialization is a key driver of productivity growth and job creation. Inclusive growth and

  • sustainable industrialization was proposed as a goal. The importance of resource efficiency,

  • decoupling and green growth was highlighted.

  • Many countries particularly in Africa highlighted the need for economic diversification, moving from reliance on primary commodity exports to value addition. For this, productive capacities and technological capabilities need to be strengthened. Small- and medium enterprises (SMEs) are engines for job creation, requiring better integration into national and global value chains.

  • Infrastructure underpins industrialization, rural and urban development. Access to quality

  • infrastructure for all is essential, including transport, energy, water, and communications.

  • Efficient internal financial resource mobilization underpinned successful industrialization policies in newly industrialized countries

  • Sound domestic macroeconomic policies are essential for sustained, inclusive and sustainable growth and development. They need to be supported by means of implementation, including a revamped global partnership, as well as an enabling international environment.

  • External debt sustainability remains a concern for a number of countries, despite progress with debt relief, and requires continued attention. External debt sustainability remains a concern for a number of countries, despite progress with debt relief, and requires continued attention.

  • Trade is a growth driver and, in this regard, an open, fair, rule-based, predictable, and non- discriminatory trading system needs to be maintained and enhanced. There was emphasis on the need to curb illicit financial flows and tax havens, to enhance domestic revenue mobilization including from extractive sector in developing countries.

The above was taken from the United Nations Sustainability web site:


Focus 9: Industrialization


Structural transformation through sustainable industrial development is a key driver of growth in productivity, employment creation and improvement of living standards, fostering economic diversification and technological upgrading. Some areas that could be considered include:

  1. ensuring adequate policy space for industrial development;

  2. advancing sustainable industrial development based on energy- and resource-efficient and environmentally sound industrial processes, including phase out of harmful chemicals, waste and pollution, minimizing material use and maximizing material recovery, with technology cooperation and transfer to support such development;

  3. strengthening institutions that support industrial production, technological upgrading and value addition;

  4. investment in sound infrastructure;

  5. strengthening productive capacities, with particular reference to industrial sectors;

  6. creation of decent industrial sector jobs;

  7. encouraging industrial entrepreneurship and enterprise formation;

  8. enhancing science and math, engineering and technical skills;

  9. ensuring favourable market access for industrial products and processed commodities of developing countries;

  10. re-industrialization and retro-fitting of industry as relevant;

  11. promoting new industries that supply goods and services for low-income consumers as well as environmentally sustainable products and services; and

  12. appropriate means of implementation*.

The above was taken from the United Nations Sustainability web site:


Focus 10: Infrastructure


Efficient, productive and globally competitive economies require well-functioning infrastructure. Infrastructure design and development should aim to promote human well-being, productive capacity, efficiency, and environmental protection. In this regard, some areas that could be considered include:

  1. provision of infrastructure for access to modern energy services, as well as provision of reliable and sustainable transport and communications, including road and rail links, ports and ICT connectivity;

  2. due account for environmental and social impacts of existing and planned infrastructure from a lifecycle perspective;

  3. improving water supply systems, developing irrigation and water harvesting and storage infrastructure for agriculture, and developing sewerage and wastewater treatment;

  4. proper use of urban space and related infrastructure planning;

  5. improvement of infrastructure necessary for sustainable tourism;

  6. addressing trans-border infrastructure needs for trade and related challenges facing developing countries;

  7. accessibility to persons with disabilities;

  8. planning and building resilient infrastructure including for disaster risk reduction; and

  9. appropriate means of implementation*.

The above was taken from the United Nations Sustainability web site:



Focus 11: Employment


Sustainable development should provide employment and decent jobs for all those seeking work. Some areas that could be considered include:

  1. promoting full employment through macroeconomic policy;

  2. addressing youth unemployment through policies and strategies aimed at providing young people with access to decent and productive work;

  3. facilitating the participation of women in the labour force;

  4. social security and protection including for those retired from the labour force, persons with disabilities, the unemployed, children and youth, and older persons; and

  5. eliminating gender-based and other forms of labour market discrimination including against persons with disabilities and older persons;

  6. encouraging transition from informal sector to formal sector employment;

  7. promoting non-farm employment opportunities in rural areas;

  8. ensuring decent wages aligned with productivity;

  9. supporting small- and medium-sized enterprises;

  10. increasing access to credit to the youth, women and other vulnerable groups;

  11. promoting appropriate job-rich technology applications;

  12. promoting job-rich sustainable tourism;

  13. training and re-skilling for displaced workers;

  14. protecting the rights of migrant workers and displaced persons in compliance with the ILO norms and standards; and

  15. appropriate means of implementation*.


  • Reminded of the universality of the post-2015 agenda and the SDGs. Some lessons from the MDGs – equitable access to services and going beyond aggregate measures Access is not enough – quality must also be addressed.

  • Need to reflect the multiple interlinkages between issues and address key drivers and enablers of change. But not all our priorities are “goalable”.

  • Poverty eradication remains our overriding goal that is manifestly linked to decent and productive work, social protection, and access to quality basic education and health care.

  • Repeated emphasis on the need for disaggregated data to address inequalities and track progress in reaching vulnerable populations.

  • Decent and productive work is the most direct route out of poverty, based on robust, inclusive, job- creating growth. Enterprises and entrepreneurs are principal job creators. Unemployment, especially among youth, is a serious problem. A goal or targets related to jobs would need to address the situation of the working poor as well as the unemployed.

  • Many highlighted the cross-cutting nature of social protection; minimum services can be extended even in low-income settings.

  • The human rights dimension, equity of access, quality, and relevance were emphasized with respect to education. At the elementary level it should be free.

  • Complete the unfinished work of the MDGs to ensure universal primary school enrollment - but also learning outcomes, relevance to job needs, lifelong learning, adult literacy, and non-formal education.

  • Culture was highlighted as a source of resilience, strengthen and adaptability of societies. Youth concerns need to be reflected across goals, especially in relation to education, health and employment.

The above was taken from the United Nations Sustainability web site:

Promote Equality

Focus 12: Promote Equality


Inequalities within countries can be socially destabilizing and also have negative consequences for economic growth. Inequalities among countries can have negative effects on global solidarity and international cooperation to address shared challenges. Some areas that could be considered in addressing inequality among social groups within countries include:

  1. eliminating discrimination in laws, policies and practices, including those between women and men;

  2. reducing inequalities among social groups, including economic, social, political and environmental inequalities;

  3. empowering and inclusion of marginalized groups, including indigenous peoples, minorities, migrants, refugees, persons with disabilities, older persons, children and youth;

  4. ensuring equality of economic opportunities for all, including marginalized groups;

  5. strengthening social protection systems, and social protection floors as relevant;

  6. promoting differentially high per capita income growth at the bottom of the income distribution;

  7. working towards inclusive societies that respect and promote cultural diversity;

  8. developing and using evidence based, high quality, timely, disaggregated data and impartial, internationally established methods for evaluating progress; and

  9. appropriate means of implementation*.

Some areas that could be considered in furtherance of greater equality between and among countries through high and sustained growth in developing countries include:

  1. promoting an open, rules-based, non-discriminatory and equitable multilateral trading system;

  2. curbing illicit financial flows;

  3. phasing out harmful subsidies;

  4. pursuing policies for planned, well managed and legal migration;

  5. reducing the transaction costs of remittances;

  6. developing policies to mitigate brain drain; and

  7. progress in internal conditions of development, education, inclusive economic growth, sustainable industrialization, infrastructure, energy and relevant means of implementation.


  • Concerns were voiced by many about the wide and in some respects widening inequalities in the world, both within and between countries, which pose a risk to social cohesion.

  • Experience shows that political space for inequality reduction can be created.

  • Inequality can be addressed through affordable access to quality education, social protection, health care, as well as productive and remunerative employment opportunities. Policies supportive of entrepreneurship and small-scale enterprises can also enhance opportunities for the poor, including poor women.

  • Social equity requires that vulnerable groups obtain equitable access to opportunities, basic services and participation in social, economic and political life. In this regard, persons living with disabilities merit particular attention.

The above was taken from the United Nations Sustainability web site:


Sustainable Cities

Focus 13: Sustainable Cities


Building sustainable cities as well as decent and affordable human settlements for all, including for indigenous peoples, and the realization of the right to adequate housing remain important undertakings. Sustainable cities and settlements will be central in addressing socio-economic and environmental challenges and in building resilient societies. Some areas that could be considered include:

  1. eradicating and preventing slum conditions, including by provision of adequate and affordable housing, infrastructure and basic services;

  2. providing access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport, improving road safety and urban air quality;

  3. improving waste and wastewater management;

  4. strengthening resilience to climate change and natural disasters;

  5. access to safe public spaces and services;

  6. enhancing capacities for urban planning;

  7. strengthening positive economic and social links between cities and peri-urban and rural areas;

  8. enhancing social cohesion and personal security;

  9. promoting accessible cities for people with disabilities;

  10. protecting and safeguarding the world's cultural and natural heritage, including ancient archaeological sites, intangible and underwater heritage, museum collections, oral traditions and other forms of heritage;

  11. appropriate means of implementation*.


  • The world is rapidly urbanizing, and so cities are where “the battle for sustainable development will be won or lost”. Addressing the needs of the urban poor in informal settlements and slums is crucial for poverty eradication.

  • Cities belong to larger regions with multiple ties to peri-urban and rural areas, and the SDGs should aim at balanced territorial development.

  • The inclusion of an urbanization-related goal in SDGs framework was supported by many. Others considered that it could be captured at the target level or under a goal on sustainable infrastructure development, in order to ensure that a focus on urbanization would not detract from addressing the needs of rural populations.

  • It was emphasized that urbanization should be seen as a process involving urban-rural flows of people, goods and services. Strong urban-rural linkages are essential for rural development as well as the provision of essential goods to sustain urban life.

  • The cross-cutting nature of sustainable cities and human settlements was stressed, necessitating an integrated approach addressing linkages with other sustainable development issues.

  • Key factors contributing to sustainable cities and urban development are forward-looking, effective and inclusive urban design and land-use planning processes, including effective protection of public spaces; affordable housing and spatial planning to promote social inclusion; infrastructure development as means to serve planned urbanization and rural-urban integration; sound finances to support provision of affordable and accessible public services and to provide social protection; policies that promote economic dynamism, small-business formation and formal sector job creation, to name a few.

  • Social inclusion was emphasized as an integral part of sustainable urbanization. Thus goals and targets should strive to overcome the social, economic and physical restrictions of the vulnerable marginalized groups and ensure their access to safe, affordable and sustainable forms of basic services.

  • It was underlined that transportation is crucial for sustainable development addressing the mobility of people and goods. The importance of its inclusion in SDGs was well recognized, with many calling for it to be included at the level of targets under other goals. The importance of road safety was highlighted.

  • Many called for the SDGs to ensure access to safe, affordable and environmentally friendly forms of transportation for all. This entails avoiding unnecessary transport with smarter land use planning and improved access to ICT; shifting to public transportation systems, rail and waterway freight modes and safe convenient non-motorized transport where appropriate; improving environmental performance of existing forms of transport through innovation, the application of ICT, and improved engineering and design.

The above was taken from the United Nations Sustainability web site:

Sustainable Consumption

Focus 14: Sustainable Consumption (Including Chemicals and Waste)


Promoting sustainable consumption and production patterns will be vital to have decent standard of living as well as addressing resource depletion and environmental sustainability. Industrialized societies and economies would lead a shift to sustainable consumption and production patterns, with other countries benefiting from their experience and know how. The 10-Year Framework of Programmes on SCP is the principal framework for international cooperation and will need to be adequately resourced. Some areas to be considered include:

  1. significantly improving energy efficiency and materials productivity;

  2. sustainable supply chains;

  3. preventing, reducing, recycling and reusing waste;

  4. reducing waste in food production and consumption, including through traditional knowledge;

  5. sound management of chemicals and hazardous materials in accordance with agreed frameworks;

  6. sustainable buildings and construction;

  7. awareness raising, education for creating a culture of sustainable lifestyles;

  8. providing sustainability information on products and services to consumers to enable informed decisions;

  9. fostering collaboration among the academic, scientific and technological community to advance technologies for sustainable consumption and production;

  10. sustainable public procurement;

  11. sustainable tourism promotion;

  12. enhanced reporting on corporate social and environmental responsibility, including integrated reporting, and sustainable finance;

  13. appropriate means of implementation*.


  • Changing consumption and production patterns is vital for sustainable development and poverty eradication, and also for protecting and managing the natural resource base and ecosystems.

  • The cross-cutting nature of SCP was well recognized. Some delegations were therefore not convinced of the need to have a stand-alone goal on SCP, favouring the incorporation of SCP under relevant goals in relevant areas such as energy, water and sanitation, food and agriculture, health. Several delegations did advocate a stand-alone goal, including specific target proposals of reducing the per capita energy consumption in developed countries and reducing food wastage at consumer level.

  • Many welcomed the Rio+20 decision to adopt the 10-year framework of programmes on sustainable consumption and production (10YFP) and called for its implementation. A number of countries called for early and generous contributions to its trust fund.

  • Several emphasized the importance of sustainable procurement, in particular public procurement, suggesting a target in this area would be useful. A mix of other policies is needed to promote SCP, including fiscal instruments, education and awareness raising, voluntary certification schemes, and regulations, standards and legislation.

  • It was recalled that existing agreements that address SCP call on developed countries to lead in shifting towards sustainable consumption and production; it was also noted that developing countries are already among the leaders in some areas like renewable energy and possess valuable knowledge, including traditional knowledge, about efficient resource use.

  • Targets on decoupling resource use from economic growth were proposed, including for relative decoupling in developing countries and absolute decoupling in developed ones.

  • Design of products is critical to life cycle management of impacts and encouraging recycling and reuse.

  • SCP requires the involvement of all stakeholders, and the private sector would play an mportant

  • role. Labelling schemes can be helpful in guiding and shaping consumer choices towards sustainable consumption, but care and capacity building are needed to avoid disadvantaging developing country producers, especially SMEs.

  • The poor and the vulnerable are the first victims of harmful chemicals. It was highlighted that many developing countries, including LDCs and SIDS, lack capacity to manage chemicals and waste sustainably. Strong linkages exist between sound chemicals management and other sustainable development issues, including health and water.

  • Reference was made to the need to reaffirm commitments to relevant Conventions relating to chemicals and waste; the SAICM 2020 target was proposed as a reference point for any possible SDG target relating to chemicals.

The above was taken from the United Nations Sustainability web site:


Focus 15: Climate


Climate change poses a grave threat to sustainable development and poverty eradication. Regard must be paid to the principles of the UNFCCC, including that of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, and to supporting and urging greater ambition in the ongoing negotiations towards a strong and effective agreement in 2015. Some areas to be considered include:

  1. reaffirming and reinforcing existing international commitments, such as limiting the increase in global average temperature through equitable reductions in greenhouse gas emissions;

  2. building resilience and adaptive capacity in all vulnerable countries;

  3. introducing, inter alia, economic incentives for investments in low-carbon solutions in infrastructure and industry;

  4. developing low-carbon, climate-resilient development strategies and plans;

  5. reducing the damage caused by climate-induced and other natural hazards through disaster risk reduction;

  6. improving education and awareness raising on climate change; and

  7. appropriate means of implementation*.


  • The urgency of action on climate change and disaster risk reduction was widely acknowledged, and for a number of countries climate change represents an existential threat.

  • Climate change poses a threat to sustainable development, putting at risk development gains and, among other things, threatening food security, intensifying water scarcity and flooding as well as worsening sea-level rise. The exposure of SIDS, LDCs – including those in Africa – as well as other countries to the impacts of climate change was highlighted. The poorest are most at risk from disasters and disasters intensify poverty.

  • There was wide support for addressing climate change as a cross-cutting issue framed in terms of sustainable development, without a stand-alone goal, and while respecting the role of and commitments under the UNFCCC, including its principles. In this regard, a particular focus was laid on the principles of equity and common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities; however, the view was also expressed that CBDR has evolved over time.

  • Several supported targets that reflect the challenges of addressing climate change in terms of building resilient infrastructure and human settlements, protecting forests, sustainable energy, food security, water management, SCP, and promoting low carbon and climate resilient development paths. Some favoured inclusion of the below 2⁰C warming target; others considered that this target could not be referenced in isolation of the UNFCCC context.

  • Means of implementation were strongly emphasized by many delegations.The inter-connected nature of risks posed by climate change and disaster risks was recognized. Strong actions on climate change mitigation and adaptation are thus among the most effective means of reducing disaster risks. Without such actions, the frequency and intensity of, and the vulnerability to, disasters will only intensify in coming years and decades.

  • Disaster losses have major impact, but the tools to address them are available, in particular the Hyogo Framework for Action. Mention was made of the need for an ambitious second Hyogo Framework for Action.

  • We are forced to think and act through managing systems to reduce disaster risks and build resilience. In this context, there is need to consider risk prevention through three channels: development pathways that minimise risk generation; risk reduction; and fostering resilience by improving the ability to deal with shocks of all kinds. Some developing countries have valuable lessons to offer in regard to resilience building.

  • Proposals were made for targets on disaster risk reduction including to reduce by a significant degree the severity of impacts as measured for example by loss of lives and economic losses.

  • There is a need for a range of solutions, including access to technology and information systems for disaster management, and enhanced stakeholder capacities at all levels.

  • The role of good governance and the value of incorporating lessons learned from indigenous knowledge were recognized.

The above was taken from the United Nations Sustainability web site:



Focus 16: Conservation and sustainable use of marine resources, oceans and seas 


The conservation and sustainable use of marine resources, oceans and seas ensures the provision of economic and social benefits and ecosystem services to humankind. Some areas that could be considered include:

  1. reducing marine pollution and debris including from land-based activities;

  2. halting destruction of marine habitat including ocean acidification;

  3. promoting sustainable exploitation of marine resources;

  4. regulating harvesting of straddling fish stocks;

  5. addressing illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing, and destructive fishing practices;

  6. encouraging sustainable small-scale fisheries;

  7. eliminating harmful subsidies that promote fishing overcapacity;

  8. ensuring full implementation of regional and international regimes governing oceans and seas;

  9. establishing Marine Protected Areas;

  10. protecting marine resources in areas beyond national jurisdiction;

  11. sustainable management of tourism; and

  12. appropriate means of implementation*.


  • The role as life-support systems of oceans and seas, forests and biodiversity was frequently mentioned.

  • Healthy, productive and resilient oceans are important for poverty eradication, global food security, human health, climate regulation, and the creation of sustainable livelihoods and decent jobs.

  • Forests are key sources of wood and other forest products, water supplies, medicines, livelihoods, ecosystem stability, carbon storage and other vital services.

  • Many underscored that biodiversity contributes directly and indirectly to the well-being of both current and future generations. The need to recognize the living value of species beyond their commodity values was noted.

  • A range of threats to oceans and seas were mentioned, including: marine pollution including marine debris; climate change and its impacts such as sea-level rise; ocean acidification; unsustainable extraction of marine resources, such as overfishing, illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing, and destructive fishing practices; and harmful subsidies that incentivize unsustainable activities.

  • Many expressed concern relating to the access to and exploitation of the resources of sea-bed and ocean floor beyond the limits of national jurisdiction.

  • Some raised the issue of conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity beyond areas of national jurisdiction.

  • The need to recognize and respect the rights of indigenous peoples and other forest dwellers, and their vital role in sustainable forest management, was noted.

  • Various options for goals and targets were put forward. Some favoured clustering oceans, forests and biodiversity under an umbrella goal on healthy, productive and resilient ecosystems; others suggested that one or more of these areas merit stand-alone goals, in particular for oceans In addition, many referred to the cross-cutting nature of oceans, forests and biodiversity, suggesting that targets relating to these could be integrated under other relevant goal areas – such as poverty eradication, food security, health, water, disaster risk reduction and others.

  • Poor and vulnerable groups are disproportionately affected by the consequences of unsustainable management of natural resources and ecosystems.

  • Many mentioned the importance of capacity building, technology transfer and financing in relation to the sustainable use and management of natural resources. The importance of science-based policy making, partnerships and multi-stakeholder participation were also identified as enablers for implementation of sustainable management of natural resources.

  • Many referred to existing agreements and instruments on the oceans, forests and biodiversity, and suggested that SDGs should be aligned with and supportive of these agreements.

The above was taken from the United Nations Sustainability web site:



Sustainable Development Solutions Network

The Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN) is a collaborative group headed by Professor Jeffrey Sachs dedicated to looking for solutions which can be applied towards the fulfillment of the SDGs. They have come up with their own list of 10 SDGs with 30 targets (see below) as opposed to the 17 Goals and 169 Targets being proposed by the Official Working Groups (OWGs) as reported on the web page for the SDG 2014 Update.

From press release:

United Nations Secretary‐General BAN Ki‐moon will launch a new independent global network of research centres, universities and technical institutions to help find solutions for some of the world’s most pressing environmental, social and economic problems. The Sustainable Development Solutions Network will work with stakeholders including business, civil society, UN agencies and other international organizations to identify and share the best pathways to achieve sustainable development. This initiative is part of the work undertaken in response to the mandate on post‐2015 and the outcome of the Rio + 20 Conference.

The Solutions Network will be directed by Professor Jeffrey D. Sachs, director of the Earth Institute and Special Advisor to the UN Secretary‐General on the Millennium Development Goals.

SDSN is working with a range of partners to assess the costs and statistical capacity gaps in monitoring the Sustainable Development Goals

Goals and targets:

Goal 1: End Extreme Poverty Including Hunger

End extreme poverty in all its forms, including hunger, child stunting, malnutrition, and food insecurity. Support highly vulnerable countries.

Target 1a. End extreme poverty including absolute income poverty ($1.25 or less per day).

Target 1b. End hunger and achieve food security, appropriate nutrition, and zero child stunting.

Target 1c. Provide enhanced support for highly vulnerable states and Least Developed Countries, to address the structural challenges facing those countries, including violence and conflict.*

Goal 2: Promote Economic Growth and Decent Jobs Within Planetary Boundaries

All countries have a right to development that respects planetary boundaries, ensures sustainable production and consumption patterns, and helps to stabilize the global population by mid-century.

Target 2a. Each country reaches at least the next income level and promotes decent work.* Target 2b. Countries report on their contribution to planetary boundaries and incorporate them, together with other environmental and social indicators, into expanded GDP measures and national accounts.*

Target 2b. Countries report on their contribution to planetary boundaries and incorporate them, together with other environmental and social indicators, into expanded GDP measures and national accounts.*

Target 2c. Realize sexual and reproductive health and rights for all, and promote the rapid reduction in fertility to replacement level or below through exclusively voluntary means.

Goal 3: Ensure Effective Learning for All Children and Youth for Life and Livelihood

All girls and boys complete affordable and high-quality early childhood development programs, and primary and secondary education to prepare them for the challenges of modern life and decent livelihoods. All youth and adults have access to continuous lifelong learning to acquire functional literacy, numeracy, and skills to earn a living through decent employment or self-employment.

Target 3a. All children under the age of 5 reach their developmental potential through access to quality early childhood development programs and policies.

Target 3b. All girls and boys receive quality primary and secondary education that focuses on learning outcomes and on reducing the dropout rate to zero.

Target 3c. Ensure that all youth transition effectively into the labor market.*

Goal 4: Achieve Gender Equality, Social Inclusion, and Human Rights for All

Ensure gender equality, human rights, the rule of law, and universal access to public services. Reduce relative poverty and other inequalities that cause social exclusion. Prevent and eliminate violence and exploitation, especially for women and children.

Target 4a. Monitor and end discrimination and inequalities in public service delivery, the rule of law, access to justice, and participation in political and economic life on the basis of gender, ethnicity, religion, disability, national origin, and social or other status.

Target 4b. Reduce by half the proportion of households with incomes less than half of the national median income (relative poverty).

Target 4c. Prevent and eliminate violence against individuals, especially women and children.*

Goal 5: Achieve Health and Wellbeing at All Ages

All countries achieve universal health coverage at every stage of life, with particular emphasis on primary health services, including mental and reproductive health, to ensure that all people receive quality health services without suffering financial hardship. Countries implement policies to create enabling social conditions that promote the health of populations and help individuals make healthy and sustainable decisions related to their daily living.

Target 5a. Ensure universal coverage of quality healthcare, including the prevention and treatment of communicable and non-communicable diseases, sexual and reproductive health, family planning, routine immunization, and mental health, according the highest priority to primary health care.

Target 5b. End preventable deaths by reducing child mortality to [20] or fewer deaths per 1000 births, maternal mortality to [40] or fewer deaths per 100,000 live births, and mortality under 70 years of age from non-communicable diseases by at least 30 percent compared with the level in 2015.

Target 5c. Implement policies to promote and monitor healthy diets, physical activity and subjective wellbeing; reduce unhealthy behaviors such as tobacco use by [30%] and harmful use of alcohol by [20%].

Goal 6: Improve Agriculture Systems and Raise Rural Prosperity

Improve farming practices, rural infrastructure, and access to resources for food production to increase the productivity of agriculture, livestock, and fisheries, raise smallholder incomes, reduce environmental impacts, promote rural prosperity, and ensure resilience to climate change.

Target 6a. Ensure sustainable food production systems with high yields and high efficiency of water, soil nutrients, and energy, supporting nutritious diets with low food losses and waste.*

Target 6b. Halt forest and wetland conversion to agriculture, protect soil resources, and ensure that farming systems are resilient to climate change and disasters.*

Target 6c. Ensure universal access in rural areas to basic resources and infrastructure services (land, water, sanitation, modern energy, transport, mobile and broadband communication, agricultural inputs, and advisory services).

Goal 7: Empower Inclusive, Productive, and Resilient Cities

Make all cities socially inclusive, economically productive, environmentally sustainable, secure, and resilient to climate change and other risks. Develop participatory, accountable, and effective city governance to support rapid and equitable urban transformation.

Target 7a. End extreme urban poverty, expand employment and productivity, and raise living standards, especially in slums.*

Target 7b. Ensure universal access to a secure and affordable built environment and basic urban services including housing; water, sanitation and waste management; low-carbon energy and transport; and mobile and broadband communication.

Target 7c. Ensure safe air and water quality for all, and integrate reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, efficient land and resource use, and climate and disaster resilience into investments and standards.*

Goal 8: Curb Human-Induced Climate Change and Ensure Sustainable Energy

Curb greenhouse gas emissions from energy, industry, agriculture, the built environment, and land-use change to ensure a peak of global CO2 emissions by 2020 and to limit global average temperature increases to the levels agreed under the UNFCCC (currently 2°C). Promote sustainable energy for all.

Target 8a. Decarbonize the energy system, ensure clean energy for all, and improve energy efficiency, with targets for 2020, 2030, and 2050.*

Target 8b. Reduce non-energy-related emissions of greenhouse gases through improved practices in agriculture, forestry, waste management, and industry.*

Target 8c. Adopt incentives, including pricing greenhouse gas emissions, to curb climate change and promote technology transfer to developing countries.*

Goal 9: Secure Biodiversity and Ensure Good Management of Water, Oceans, Forests and Natural Resources

Biodiversity, marine and terrestrial ecosystems of local, regional, and global significance are inventoried, managed, and monitored to ensure the continuation of resilient and adaptive life support systems and to support sustainable development. Water, oceans, forests, and other natural resources are managed sustainably and transparently to support inclusive economic and human development.

Target 9a. Ensure resilient and productive ecosystems by adopting policies and legislation that address drivers of ecosystem degradation, and requiring individuals, businesses and governments to pay the social cost of pollution and use of environmental services.*

Target 9b. Participate in and support regional and global arrangements to inventory, monitor, and protect biomes and environmental commons of regional and global significance and curb trans-boundary environmental harms, with robust systems in place no later than 2020.

Target 9c. All governments and businesses commit to the sustainable, integrated, and transparent management of water, agricultural land, forests, fisheries, mining, and hydrocarbon resources to support inclusive economic development and the achievement of all SDGs.*

Goal 10: Transform Governance and Technologies for Sustainable Development

The public sector, business, and other stakeholders commit to good governance, including transparency, accountability, access to information, participation, an end to tax and secrecy havens, and efforts to stamp out corruption. The international rules governing international finance, trade, corporate reporting, technology, and intellectual property are made consistent with achieving the SDGs. The financing of poverty reduction and global public goods including efforts to head off climate change are strengthened and based on a graduated set of global rights and responsibilities.

Target 10a. Governments (national and local) and major companies support the SDGs, provide integrated reporting by 2020, and reform international rules to achieve the goals.*

Target 10b. Adequate domestic and international finance for the Sustainable Development Goals, including 0.7 percent of GNI in ODA for all high-income countries and an additional $100 billion per year in climate finance by 2020 from developed-country Parties to the UNFCCC.

Target 10c. Accelerate adoption new technologies for the SDGs.*


Focus 17: Ecosystems and Biodiversity


Humans are fundamentally dependent on the capacity of ecosystems for life and to provide services for their well-being and societal development. Relevant areas that could be considered include:

  1. protecting threatened species and halting loss of biodiversity;

  2. stopping poaching and trafficking of endangered species;

  3. maintaining the genetic diversity of both farmed species and their wild relatives;

  4. ensuring fair and equitable sharing of the benefits from the utilization of genetic resources;

  5. promoting sustainable forest management;

  6. slowing, halting and reversing deforestation and conversion of forests to crop lands;

  7. restoring degraded forest ecosystems and increasing area of protected forests;

  8. supporting measures to protect mountain ecosystems;

  9. achieving a land-degradation-neutral world;

  10. ensuring inclusion of indigenous and local communities in decision making and in sharing of benefits derived from conservation and sustainable use of forests and other cultural and natural assets;

  11. promoting and protecting traditional knowledge of indigenous peoples;

  12. developing and using evidence based, high quality, timely, disaggregated data and methodology for evaluating progress; and

  13. appropriate means of implementation*.

The above was taken from the United Nations Sustainability web site:

Global Partnership

Focus 18: Means of Implementation/Global Partnership for Sustainable Development


The means of implementation are an integral component in achieving sustainable development, including trade, financing for sustainable development, capacity building, and development and transfer of environmentally sound technologies. In this regard global partnership for development has been emphasized as key to unlocking the full potential of sustainable development initiatives. While developing countries still require external support for their domestic sustainable development programmes, their own domestic actions are equally crucial. Special consideration should be given to the needs of countries in special situations, African countries, LDCs, LLDCs, and SIDS as well as specific challenges facing the middle-income countries. International development cooperation through a strengthened global partnership for sustainable development is critical. 
Some areas that could be considered include:

  1. further progress on development-supportive trade reforms within an open, rules-based multilateral trading system;

  2. recommitment by developed countries to meet ODA targets on an agreed timetable;

  3. enhancing accountability in development cooperation based on agreed principles;

  4. mobilizing additional financial resources from multiple sources such as remittances, foreign direct investment, institutional and other long-term investors and innovative financing;

  5. reducing the transaction costs of remittances;

  6. enhancing scientific and technological cooperation involving developing countries and technology transfer to developing countries;

  7. strengthening capacity building efforts for developing countries and knowledge sharing and technical cooperation among all countries through South-South, North-South and triangular cooperation;

  8. strengthening capacities for tax-collection, reducing tax evasion;

  9. strengthening systems of domestic savings;

  10. reducing illicit financial flows;

  11. improving efficiency of public spending, reducing corruption;

  12. strengthening capacities for disaggregated and expanded data collection for measuring progress; and

  13. regular monitoring and reporting of progress with means of implementation and aid efficiency, in conjunction with SDG progress reporting.

To provide impetus to Global Partnership for Sustainable Development and broader stakeholder engagement in sustainable development, some areas that could be considered include:

  1. greater involvement of public and private sector business and industry, including financial institutions;

  2. strengthening commitment and involvement of multilateral financial development institutions;

  3. enhanced involvement of philanthropic organizations;

  4. creating inclusive initiatives and partnerships in support of all areas;

  5. such initiatives and partnerships to develop resource mobilization strategies;

  6. system of regular monitoring, reporting on achievements of initiatives and partnerships; and

  7. close coordination and cooperation of multi-stakeholder initiatives and partnerships with government and inter-governmental efforts in support of sustainable development.


  • A strengthened and more Global Partnership is required for the implementation of the SDGs. The partnership should be equitable, inclusive, with mutual accountability and a fair sharing of responsibilities.

  • The Global Partnership needs to have a strong accountability mechanism or mechanisms for all. Measuring of results, transparency, good governance and democratic decision-making at all levels should underlie the global partnership.

  • There were calls but not consensus that the Partnership should be based on the Rio principles, including that of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities.

  • Business should be part of the solution, but business can rally more easily behind specific, measurable and achievable goals and targets. The contribution of the private sector can be enhanced with better governance and appropriate regulation; there is a need for greater private sector uptake of sustainability reporting.

  • There is considerable potential to expand multi-stakeholder partnerships, including in support of specific goals. Governments play the key role in building an enabling environment for such partnerships.

The above was taken from the United Nations Sustainability web site:


Focus 19: Peaceful and non-violent societies, rule of law and capable institutions


Creating peaceful, non-violent and inclusive societies, based on respect for all human rights including the right to development, is a cornerstone for sustainable development. Equality within and between countries is a key determinant of peaceful, non-violent and inclusive societies.
Some areas that could be considered for strengthening peaceful and non-violent societies include:

  1. combating organized crime;

  2. strengthening the rule of law at all levels;

  3. reducing illicit arms transfer and trafficking;

  4. reduction of crime, violence, abuse, exploitation, including against children and women;

  5. promoting information and education on a culture of non-violence;

  6. reducing the number of internally displaced persons and refugees;

  7. strengthening the fight against human trafficking;

  8. improving planned and managed migration policies; and

  9. appropriate means of implementation*

Governance, rule of law, capable institutions are both outcome and enabler, advancing all three pillars of sustainable development and the post-2015 development agenda.
Some areas could include:

  1. effective, accountable and transparent institutions;

  2. strengthening the rule of law at all levels;

  3. provision of public services for all;

  4. improvement of transparency in public finances management;

  5. fighting corruption in all its forms;

  6. improved public access to publicly owned information;

  7. inclusive, participatory decision-making;

  8. strengthening local governments;

  9. strengthening of civil society;

  10. freedom of media, association and speech;

  11. curbing illicit financial flows;

  12. provision of legal identity;

  13. provision of property, use and access rights, to all persons;

  14. providing access to independent and responsive justice systems;

  15. developing and using evidence based, high quality, timely, disaggregated data and methodology for evaluating progress; and

  16. appropriate means of implementation.*


  • Tackling poverty will require addressing the full range of its causes. Many stated that peace, rule of law, and governance are both ends in themselves and enablers for poverty eradication and sustainable development.

  • While recognizing the importance of peace, governance and rule of law, it was also underlined that the discussions of the OWG should focus on the social, economic, and environmental dimensions of sustainable development. It was pointed out that the Rio+20 Outcome document has no pillar or goal on peace and security and that SDGs should be guided by "The Future We Want", as per paragraph 247 of that document. Some noted that, in addition, the OWG should draw on the Millennium Declaration and outcome document of the 2013 Special Event.

  • Many underlined that conflict and violence undermine development. It was underlined that peaceful societies are the basis for and the result of sustainable development.

  • Conflict prevention and the pursuit of durable peace should address structural drivers of conflicts, including through promoting participatory decision-making, inclusive economic governance, and equitable management of natural resources.

  • The impact of the lack of physical security on all dimensions of development is severe and long- term. In this regard, some mentioned rising citizen insecurity, trans-national organized crime, and the illicit arms trade. It was pointed out that the concepts of "conflict" and "violence" should not be equated with each other, given the differences in the remedies required from the international community.

  • Open and effective institutions are essential foundations for sustainable development. In this regard, some identified transparency as a key component of governance. Action in this area could promote public access to information and enhance openness of government, as well as fostering trust in government institutions.

  • Curbing illicit financial flows could potentially make available additional domestic sources of revenue for social spending, helping to promote inclusive, stable and peaceful societies.

  • Many referred to the declaration of the high-level meeting of the GA on the rule of law at the national and international levels. The document, among other things, pointed out that rule of law and development are inter-related and mutually reinforcing, and that advancement of the rule of law must take place at the national and international levels.

  • It was mentioned that rule of law touches directly and indirectly on a range of sustainable development areas, including by: furthering inclusive economic growth through protection of land, property and other resource use rights; providing access to fair and responsive justice systems; and improved provision of public services. A number of speakers referred to the importance of birth registration and legal identity.

  • Many countries highlighted the international dimension of the rule of law, including through reforms of international organizations in order to increase the legitimacy, transparency, accountability and representation of the United Nations and other multilateral institutions.

  • It was also pointed out that there is no one-size-fits all model for the rule of law, which has developed subject to national conditions and particularities and that there is no agreed or universal basis for assessing "levels of implementation" of the rule of law. National ownership was emphasized.

  • There were calls for peace, rule of law, and governance to be reflected in goal form. Others argued that they should be dealt with in a cross-cutting manner. Still others argued that there should be no specific goal on these issues.

  • It was mentioned that there exist tools and indicators for measuring progress, although there is a need for capacity building and assistance. However, others stated that peace and governance cannot be targeted and measured in ways that are consensual.

The above was taken from the United Nations Sustainability web site:


Means of Implementation

SDG Means of Implementation

The following was taken from the notes of the Open Working Group number 6:

  • Means of implementation are crucial for the achievement of sustainable development. Science, technology and innovation are drivers of social and economic development and have potential to be a game changer for all countries’ efforts to achieve sustainable development. There was a call for means of implementation to be integrated into the framework of the goals.

  • Domestic resource mobilization is a critical element of public financing, but is reliant on growth. Public and private sources are both essential, though their relative importance differs across countries, and they should complement one another. There is a need to enhance revenue collection and combat illicit financial flows.

  • It was reaffirmed that ODA remains an essential source of financing, especially for LDCs; it was emphasized that we should be “talking aid up, not down”. In this context, there were calls for more strategic and catalytic use of ODA to leverage other flows.

  • The need to honour previous commitments, in particular the target of 0.7 per cent of GNI (.15- .20 for LDCs), was emphasized. Alongside ODA, other sources of financing – including foreign direct investment, remittances and innovative financing – play an increasingly important complementary role.

  • The need to ensure that debt levels do not become an unsustainable burden on countries was recognized.

  • South-South and triangular cooperation are growing in importance; they can complement but not replace North-South cooperation.

  • Many stressed the need to bridge a persistent technology divide between developed and developing countries, bearing mind also the necessity of involving women and other affected groups in decisions relating to tech development and deployment. Technology transfer goes beyond the acquisition of technology to include capacity development, local productive capacity, and supportive institutions.

  • Facilitating access to technologies in public domain was emphasized; also, ensuring a conducive environment for trade and investment, as channels for cross-border technology flows.

  • The decision to carry out a feasibility study for a technology bank for LDCs was welcomed; the proposal to establish a technology facilitation mechanism was widely supported but enjoys no consensus.

  • A rules-based, equitable, multi-lateral trade system is an important part of the international enabling environment. In this regard, the recent WTO agreement reached on 7 December in Bali was welcomed. The need to expand aid for trade facilitation was noted.

  • Progress must be measured, which requires further improvement in data availability and statistical capabilities, including the ability to produce gender-sensitive indicators.

  • Migration can contribute to sustainable development, including through knowledge sharing; many stated that migration and human mobility should be integrated into SDGs framework.

  • There was a call for coherence and convergence but not duplication of relevant processes, including the OWG on SDGs and the intergovernmental expert committee on financing for sustainable development.

The above was taken from the United Nations Sustainability web site:

Countries in Special Situations

SDGs for Countries in Special Situations

  • In the spirit of “leave no one behind”, it is vital for SDGs and the post-2015 development agenda to take into account the particular situations and needs of countries in special situations.

  • Countries in special situations need continued international support to overcome structural impediments to sustainable development. Poverty eradication remains the overarching aim.

  • The SDGs should address key vulnerabilities and build resilience, in order to promote inclusive and sustained growth in countries in special situations, benefiting women and vulnerable groups.

  • Among common priorities of many countries in special situations are: achieving inclusive and sustained growth; industrialization, structural transformation and strengthened productive capacities; greater connectivity to global economy; strengthened human resources and institutional capacities; and social protection. Achieving these will require enhanced means of implementation.

  • Many countries in special situations – as well as other countries – are highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. In addition, SIDS highlighted the sustainable management and use of oceans and seas.

  • Access to markets remains a critical challenge for LLDCs, which have to contend with costly and inadequate transport and communications infrastructure. There is need to consider how to integrate relevant internationally agreed priorities – BPOA and MSI, IPOA and Almaty programme – into the SDG framework.

  • It was noted that the current classification methodology based on income is incomplete, particularly masking the challenges faced by middle-income countries and contributing to the “middle-income trap”.

The above was taken from the United Nations Sustainability web site:

SDGs and Human Rights

SDGs and Human Rights

  • Human rights and fundamental freedoms are essential for everyone on the planet to lead a life of dignity. Human rights are universal and multi-dimensional, encompassing civil, political, social, economic, environmental and cultural rights. Human rights are cross-cutting and must be mainstreamed. The rights of women are centrally important in all domains.

  • It was emphasized that the right to development must be clearly and centrally reflected in the post-2015 framework, with full implementation of the Declaration on the Right to Development, putting people at the centre of development with poverty eradication at its core.

  • Need to ensure that the human rights of the most vulnerable and marginalized are upheld, including indigenous peoples and persons with disabilities, to eliminate all forms of discrimination, including against women and girls, and to promote economic and legal empowerment of the poor and of women.

  • Good governance at all levels based on human rights, rule of law, democracy, access to justice and to information, transparency and accountability, and peace and security is a prerequisite for sustainable development.There is a need to strengthen policy coherence between development policies and human rights and to ensure that business globally respects fundamental human rights.

  • Good governance at all levels based on human rights, rule of law, democracy, access to justice and to information, transparency and accountability, and peace and security is a prerequisite for sustainable development.There is a need to strengthen policy coherence between development policies and human rights and to ensure that business globally respects fundamental human rights.

  • The reform of the international financial and economic architecture should continue to promote inclusiveness and adequate representation of developing countries.

  • The role of UN in global governance remains central, but needs to be strengthened. An effective United Nations system must play a central role in achieving sustainable development, as well as human rights, and in addressing the links between development, security, conflict and country fragility.

  • The UN system must play a key role with regard to ensuring effective monitoring of progress and accountability of all stakeholders, and in this regard the high-level political forum should have a crucial role. It was emphasized that the UN remains the forum for a broad, development-focussed discussion of the international financial and economic system, notably in the context of a reinvigorated ECOSOC.

The above was taken from the United Nations Sustainability web site: