Combat HIV

MDG 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases

The following information is taken from the UN Millennium Development Goals – Aids web site

Goal 6.A – Halted and reversed spread of HIV/AIDS

6.A - By 2015 have halted and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS

  • New HIV infections continue to decline in most regions.

  • More people than ever are living with HIV due to fewer AIDS-related deaths and the continued large number of new infections with 2.5 million people are newly infected each year.

  • Comprehensive knowledge of HIV transmission remains low among young people, along with condom use.

  • More orphaned children are now in school due to expanded efforts to mitigate the impact of AIDS.

Goal 6.B: Universal access and treatment for HIV/AIDS

6.B - Achieve by 2010, universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it

  • While the target was missed by 2011, access to treatment for people living with HIV increased in all regions.

  • At the end of 2011, 8 million people were receiving antiretroviral therapy for HIV. This total constitutes an increase of over 1.4 million people from December 2010.

  • By the end of 2011, eleven countries had achieved universal access to antiretroviral therapy.

Goal 6.C: Halted and reversed malaria and other diseases

6.C - Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases

  • The global estimated incidence of malaria has decreased by 17 per cent since 2000, and malaria-specific mortality rates by 25 per cent.

  • In the decade since 2000, 1.1 million deaths from malaria were averted.

  • Countries with improved access to malaria control interventions saw child mortality rates fall by about 20 per cent.

  • Thanks to increased funding, more children are sleeping under insecticide-treated bed nets in sub-Saharan Africa.

  • Treatment for tuberculosis has saved some 20 million lives between 1995 and 2011.

Fast Facts

  • The global estimated incidence of malaria has decreased by 17 per cent since 2000, and malaria-specific mortality rates by 25 per cent.

  • In the decade since 2000, 1.1 million deaths from malaria were averted.

  • Countries with improved access to malaria control interventions saw child mortality rates fall by about 20 per cent.

  • Measles Global deaths have declined by 78% according to WHO:

  • Thanks to increased funding, more children are sleeping under insecticide-treated bed nets in sub-Saharan Africa.

  • Treatment for tuberculosis has saved some 20 million lives between 1995 and 2011.

Where We Stand

The incidence of HIV is declining in most regions. Worldwide, the number of people newly infected with HIV dropped 33 per cent from 2001 to 2012. Still, 2.3 million people are newly infected by HIV each year, with 1.6 million of them in sub-Saharan Africa.

The MDG target of halting and beginning to reverse the spread of HIV has been met. In addition a record 9.7 million people living with HIV were accessing treatment in 2012 compared to just over 8.1 million in 2011––an increase of 1.6 million in one year alone.

Global malaria deaths fell by an estimated 26 per cent from 2000 to 2010. More than half of the 1.1 million lives saved were in the 10 countries with the highest malaria burden.

The tuberculosis (TB) mortality rate decreased 41 per cent between 1991 and 2011. Still, TB killed 1.4 million people who were HIV-positive. Multidrug-resistant TB is a major global challenge. Progress is being made in increasing the percentage of cases being detected, but the rate of people accessing treatment is too slow.

What’s Working

Cambodia: Dramatic progress in TB care and control. Facing one of the world’s highest tuberculosis rates, Cambodia has over the last 20 years, with support from the World Health Organization (WHO) and international partners, built a successful national TB care and control program, which has benefitted as well from economic development and a re-established primary health care system. According to a new survey, there has been a 45 per cent decrease in the number of people ill with TB from 2002 to 2011.

Democratic Republic of the Congo: Mass mosquito net campaign reaches 24.6 million. Malaria is one of the major causes of morbidity in the country, and a significant contributor to child deaths. A mass campaign was launched on World Malaria Day 2012 with the aim of distributing 13.7 million long-lasting insecticide-treated nets to reach at least 24.6 million beneficiaries. The vast operation was possible thanks to a UNICEF partnership with the Government, together with funding from the World Bank and PMI-USAID and logistical support and transport from NGO and UN partners.

Thailand: Smart phones and volunteers fight drug-resistant malaria. In 2008, when reports appeared that malaria parasites in Cambodia and Thailand were developing resistance to artemisinin, the most effective single drug to treat malaria, the countries launched a joint monitoring, prevention and treatment project in seven provinces along their shared border, with support from WHO. In Thailand alone, more than 300 volunteer village malaria health workers were trained to provide free services to test for malaria and directly observe the treatment of patients with confirmed malaria in remote villages. Use of a smart phone to capture essential data on the patients and monitor their treatment has accelerated progress. An electronic malaria information system (e-MIS) uploaded on the health workers’ mobile devices shows malaria volunteers where to find patients, the status of their treatment, and the situation and trends.

Ethiopia: More HIV-positive mothers deliver babies free of the virus. An effective program, supported by UNICEF and its partners, is preventing transmission of the virus from HIV-positive mothers to their children, a critical measure in ensuring an AIDS-free generation. In Ethiopia UNICEF and partners are supporting the training of 2,000 nurses and midwives on emergency obstetric and newborn care, along with prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV.

Zambia: Free HIV treatment reaches 400,000 people. The Ministry of Health, with UNDP support, is scaling up access to treatment by creating 68 new antiretroviral therapy (ART) sites and supplying drugs to all 454 existing ART sites nationwide, giving some 400,000 people access to free HIV/AIDS treatment. Global Fund support provided ART drugs to some 214,339 patients in 2012 and 195,679 in 2013, including HIV-positive pregnant women.

In 2013, WHO published new guidelines that simplify treatment and extend the benefits of antiretroviral medicines to a larger group of people. Earlier uptake of antiretrovirals will help people with HIV to live longer, healthier lives, and substantially reduce the risk of transmitting HIV to others. The move could avert an additional 3 million deaths and prevent 3.5 million more new HIV infections between now and 2025.

Partners

The Getting to Zero initiative continues to grow as Heads of State and Government from the 10 countries within the Association of Southeast Asian Nations have committed to making Zero New HIV Infections, Zero Discrimination and Zero HIV-Related Deaths a reality.

The Pan-American Health Organization and partners have spurred a growing number of countries to shift gears on HIV treatment, including the importance of non-discrimination against sexual minorities in the provision of services. Peru is amending its penal code to provide broader access to HIV treatment for youths. Colombia has launched a new communication strategy aimed at reducing barriers to access to HIV prevention and treatment services for members of sexual minorities. Brazil launched a new National Plan of Action against the HIV Epidemic among Homosexuals and Transsexuals, to improve sexual minorities’ access to health and education. Mexico is developing a guide to raise awareness among health providers and government officials of the importance of non-discrimination on the basis of sex, race, religion and sexual orientation. In June 2013, the Organization of American States adopted a bold new Resolution on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights of People Vulnerable to or Living With or Affected by HIV.

To combat the global AIDS crisis in countries where cricket is the leading sport, the Think Wise partnership, with UNAIDS, UNICEF and the players from the International Cricket Council, encourages young people to be informed, take action to prevent HIV infection and stand together against stigma and discrimination.

In December 2010, WHO issued policy guidance on the use of a new rapid molecular TB diagnostic test, Xpert MTB/RIF. Use of the test represents a sea change, in that TB disease and drug-resistance (to one of the most powerful drugs in TB treatment—rifampicin) can be identified in two hours rather than 4 to 6 weeks as with previous methods. To date, 88 countries have begun roll-out of the test with assistance from WHO and partners. Low- and middle-income countries are benefitting from concessional pricing from the supplier made possible through collaboration with the United States Government, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and UNITAID.

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